What economic reasons led to the fall of the han dynasty
Some of the broad factors that historians use to help explain imperial collapse are: Economic history of China.
The goal was to get people to support the empire by imposing shared cultural beliefs and practices. The reasoning behind this strategy was that shared beliefs would create a stronger sense of Chinese identity and increase loyalty to the central government. Alexander tried to win over newly-conquered people by leaving cultural and political institutions intact. The goal was to make sure people were loyal to their new leader, Alexander, by showing them he was not going to interfere in their daily activities. Unlike the Han, Alexander reasoned that letting people maintain their own cultural practices would prevent them from disliking him as a ruler.
This comparison shows us that different strategies for imperial control could work under different circumstances! The Han Chinese wanted to consolidate their control over a set amount of territory.
Alexander wanted to keep his army moving, he chose not to try to change the cultural habits of his new subjects. Comparing how empires fall.
When historians say that an empire fell, they mean that the central state no longer the its broad power. Because empires are large and complex, when historians talk about the fall of an empire, they are typically talking about a long process rather than a single cause!
Some of the broad factors that historians use to help explain imperial collapse are: Economic issues Social and cultural issues Environmental issues Political issues. These are not causes by themselves, but ways to categorize causes. Although these categories of factors are economic if we want to talk about imperial collapse, there is led a single explanation for why empires fall!
However, the existence of internal divisions made Persia vulnerable to invaders hoping to strip Persia of territory. Alexander claimed the Persian throne and left the officials and institutions of the cities he captured in place to manage his massive empire. In this sense, Alexander could be viewed as simply stepping into the role of Persian emperor. Rather than destroying the reason Persian state, Alexander took the as its new ruler. When Alexander died without an heir in BCE, his generals divided the empire among themselves. It was at this point that the fall state of Persia collapsed and was replaced by what competing states.
This division occurred within a matter of years. So, the factors that contributed to the fall of Achaemenid Persia were largely political and military. Political divisions made the empire weaker militarily. Which of the following pieces of evidence could support the claim that the Persian Empire didn't fall until Alexander's death?
When he died, Alexander's dynasties divided han empire among themselves. There were internal political divisions in the Persian Empire prior to Alexander's invasion. Alexander ruled essentially the same territory and in the same way that the Persians had. Alexander didn't do much to change the structure of the Persian empire, either at the local or the imperial level.
In addition to paying their monetary and crop taxes, all peasants of the Western Han period aged between fifteen and fifty-six were required to undertake mandatory conscription duties for one month of each year. These duties were usually fulfilled by work on construction projects.
Learn How the Han Dynasty Fell
At the age of twenty-three years male peasants were drafted to serve in the military, where they were assigned to infantrycavalryor navy service. This development went hand in hand with the increasing use of hired labor by the government.
There were two categories of Han merchants: Itinerant merchants were often wealthy and did not have to register. In contrast, registered marketplace merchants had a very low social status and were often subject to additional restrictions. These laws were difficult to enforce. While registered merchants were not allowed to own land, if they broke this law their land and slaves would be confiscated.
What were the reasons for the fall of the Han Dynasty?
At the beginning of the Han dynasty, China's salt and iron enterprises were privately owned by a number of wealthy merchants and subordinate regional kings. The profits of these industries rivaled the funds of the imperial court.
The government also instituted a liquor monopoly in 98 BC. However, this was repealed in 81 BC in an effort to reduce government intervention in the private economy. The Reformist Party supported privatization, opposing the Modernist Party, which had dominated politics during the reign of Emperor Wu and the subsequent regency of Huo Guang d.
Wang Mang preserved these central government monopolies. When Eastern Han began, they were once again repealed, the industries given to local commandery governments and private entrepreneurs. After Emperor Zhang, the Han never returned the salt and iron industries to government ownership. The grain trade was a profitable private enterprise during the early Western Han, yet Emperor Wu's government intervened in the grain trade when it established the equable marketing system also known as the ever-normal granary system in BC.
Sang Hongyang was criticized by merchants for placing government officials in market stalls. Emperor Ming also abolished the system in 68 AD, when he believed that the government's storage of grain increased prices and made wealthy landowners richer. Ebrey argues that although most of Emperor Wu's fiscal policies were repealed during Eastern Han, their damage to the merchant class and the subsequent laissez-faire policies of Eastern Han allowed the wealthiest landowners to dominate society, ensuring that China's economy would remain firmly agrarian-based for centuries.
However, this loss of revenue was often compensated by higher taxes levied on the merchants. Han government workshops produced common, luxury, and even artistic funerary items, such as the ceramic figurines and tomb tiles which adorned the walls of underground tombs. The Office of Arts and Craftssubordinate to the Minister Steward, produced weapons, bronze mirrorsvessel wares, and other goods.
Economy of the Han dynasty
Workshops located in the commanderies made silks and embroidered fabrics, silver and gold luxury items, and weapons. One workshop, in modern Anhui province, had a shipyard where battle ships were built.
Han lacquerwares were privately made as well as being manufactured in government workshops. Others were inscribed with the titles of the owner, the specific type of the vessels, their capacities, the precise day, month, and year of manufacture according to Chinese era names and their lunisolar calendarthe names of the floor managers who oversaw the items' production and the names of the workers who made them. The Court Architect was charged by central government with overseeing all imperial construction and public works projectsincluding the building of palaces and tombs.
During the Western Han period, conscripted peasants were organized into work teams consisting of over a hundred thousand laborers. Aboutconscripted workers, serving in consecutive periods of thirty days each over a total of five years, worked on the massive defensive walls of Chang'an, which were completed in BC. Nineteen stone inscriptions survive commemorating the building of new roads and bridges by the Eastern Han government.
There were, of course, numerous reasons for maintaining roads. A unified political system could be maintained only as long as the government had the means of quickly dispatching officials, troops, or messengers as needed. Such a system of transportation, once established, facilitated commerce. At the local level, road and bridge projects seem to have been initiated as much for the sake of traveling merchants as for officials.
Evidence of these products has also emerged from archaeological investigations. The main agricultural staple foods during the Han dynasty were foxtail millet, proso millet, rice including glutinous ricewheat, beans, and barley. The production of silk through sericulture was profitable for both small-time farmers and large-scale producers. Silk clothing was too expensive for the poor, who wore clothes most commonly made of hemp.
Common bronze items included domestic wares like oil lamps, incense burners, tables, irons, stoves, and dripping jars. Iron goods were often used for construction and farmwork, such as plowshares, pickaxes, spades, shovels, hoes, sickles, axes, adzehammers, chisels, knives, saws, scratch awlsand nails.
Externally, the Han Dynasty faced the same threat that plagued every indigenous Chinese government throughout history - the danger of raids by the nomadic peoples of the steppes. To the north and west, China borders on desert and range-lands that have been controlled by various nomadic peoples over time, including the UighursKazakhsMongolsJurchens Manchuand the Xiongnu. During prosperous times, the settled agricultural people of China would simply pay tribute to troublesome nomads, or hire them to provide protection from the other tribes.
Emperors even offered Chinese princesses as brides to the "barbarian" rulers in order to preserve the peace. The Han government, however, did not have the resources to buy off all of the nomads. Over more than two centuries, the Chinese and the Xiongnu fought throughout the western regions of China - a critical area that Silk Road trade goods had to cross to reach the Han Chinese cities. In 89 CE, the Han crushed the Xiongnu state, but this victory came at such a high price that it helped to fatally destabilize the Han government.
The quest for power among scholars and generals led to massacres within the palace. The economy took a downward spiral when tax revenue hit a low point.
The scholars had ruled themselves exempt from taxation, and peasants evaded tax collectors by running into the countryside. The lack of tax money led to a depleted military fund. With a weakened military budget, the army was not well equipped to defend itself against outside threats. Raids by nomadic peoples, such as the Mongols, were commonplace in China during that era. The Han government did not have the necessary resources to pay off every nomadic warlord it encountered.
Ultimately, the Sino-Xiongnu Wars of B.