What are the twelve organ systems of the human body
Part of a series of lists about Human anatomy General. Mammals possess the most advanced nervous systems, while those of invertebrates are much more rudimentary.
The testes, ovaries and their associated structures enable reproduction.
In the urinary division, your kidneys, bladder and their associated ducts enable removal of excess water, metabolic waste and unneeded substances from your body.
The endocrine system consists of a network of glands that release hormones to regulate various body functions.
The system controls growth, metabolism and sexual development and function. Components of this system include the endocrine pancreas, testes and ovaries, and the pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid and pineal glands.
The immune system protects your body against harmful organisms, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites.
List of systems of the human body
The immune system includes the lymph nodes and an array of specialized cells that patrol your body organs and tissues and fight invading germs. Immune cells produce many types of specialized proteins that aid in the protective function of this system. Please select your gender.
Please enter a valid email address. Integumentary System The integument describes the outer covering of the body, which provides protection and acts as the first line of defense against the environment and germs.
Is Caffeine Bad for the Lymphatic System? The Effect of Diet on the Circulatory System. Some invertebrate animals, like sponges, completely lack muscular tissues, but can still move somewhat thanks to the contraction of epithelial cells.
Probably the most complicated and technically advanced of all the systems listed here, the immune system is responsible for 1 distinguishing an animal's native tissues from foreign bodies and pathogens like viruses, bacteria, and parasites, and 2 mobilizing an immune response, whereby various cells, proteins and enzymes are manufactured by the body to root out and destroy the invaders.
The main carrier of the immune system is the lymphatic system slide 8 ; both of these systems only exist, to a greater or lesser extent, in vertebrate animals, and are most advanced in mammals.
The 12 Animal Organ Systems
Many invertebrate animals such as insects and crustaceans have external body coverings, also known as exoskeletons, composed of chitin and other tough proteins; sharks and rays are held together by cartilage; and vertebrate animals are supported by internal skeletons, also known as endoskeletons, assembled from calcium and various organic tissues. Many invertebrate animals completely lack any kind of endoskeleton or exoskeleton; witness soft-bodied jellyfishsponges and worms.
All land-dwelling vertebrates produce ammonia, a by-product of the digestion process. In mammals and amphibians, this ammonia is turned into urea, processed by the kidneys, mixed with water, and excreted as urine--separately from solid food wastes, which are eliminated in the form of feces by the digestive system slide 5.
Learn About the Organ Systems in the Human Body
Interestingly, birds and reptiles secrete urea in solid form along with their other wastes--these animals technically have urinary systems, but don't produce liquid urine--while fish expel ammonia directly from their bodies without first turning it into urea. In case you're wondering about whales and dolphins, they do pee, but very infrequently and in highly concentrated form. Organ systems fit between the hierarchical levels of organs and the organism. Ten major organ systems of the body are listed below along with several organs that are associated with each system.
It is important to keep in mind that these organ systems don't just exist as individual units.
The final product of these cooperating systems is one unit called the body. Each system depends on the others, either directly or indirectly, to keep the body functioning normally.
The main function of the circulatory system is to transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues throughout body. This is accomplished by the circulation of blood.