Importance of english as a second language in pakistan
In a like manner, Thanasoulas op. In the specific context of Africa, Turum-Barima
I have travelled and yes many countries are so possessive about their language like mentioned above the European and Far Eastern countries. This country does not take pride we just like to show off that we know English…European countries take pride in knowing more than one language but they never leave their mother tongue. As for as proficiency, I think, It is depend on interests of people that how much they have passion of English, but Government should work and invest in Technological and Science related departments. The writer would be surprised to know how many countries in the world function without English.
Barely anyone in China, save for the few major cities, speak or study in English.
This article overemphasizes the importance of English. Every country has its own culture and language, you cannot expect its citizens to become complete masters of English language.
It is commendable even if they are able to speak and write a few sentences of English. So if none of them are ashamed of speaking in their own accent, why should we?
The writer would also be surprised to know that many Chinese students who go to top American and British institutions for higher education do not know English at all, and have to learn from scratch.
If compared to China, Pakistan has made much more progress in English, which might be attributed to its close linkages with Britain and America. The world demographics are under transition and in a few decades, English would cease to hold the value that it holds today. Maybe a writer would be writing this same article promoting Chinese language instead someday. In fact it would look great if they speak proudly in their own language. Knowing English is not big deal.
Importance of English in Pakistan Essay
Some time person do understand English very well but he cant speak. The writer has given childish arguments that cricketers let us down when after a brilliant performence on the field they are unable to communicate during the presentation ceremonies.
A cricketer is hired for his cricketing talentsnot his presentation skiills Sir!! This is one of the second pills our young generation is forced to swallow because we dont have a structure in place to teach english. People are awestruck in Pakistan when someone is speaking English and this is quite sad. After all, its language a language but it is the english mode of communicaiton and it importance be taught. Every person that commented here has an obligation to contribute in some shape or form to the development and prosperity of their motherland, not just enjoy and bask in the glory of their inherited land.
I remind myself before anyone else. Even European countries are switching to English language in their colleges. They make an extreme effort in teaching their children English since it is vital to keep up with business and academic works which are mostly originating in the US in this day and age. They realize just how important it is to know the language. The writer is correct in saying that we need to focus on educating our children to speak proper English. We have an advantage too since English is commonly used in Pakistan although not in any proper way. Language is a tool to communicate. We cannot criticize people if they cannot speak second language.
Knowledge is power, not language. If you are good in your field, or you have command on your subject and you are a skilled person then there is no need to learn languages. People who listen or read you they will translate your work for others. English is a language; it is not a principle of assessing others. I must sum-up this by adding one example. We are a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual english with more than 71 languages and dialects along with a foreign language.
For the study of the Language component in our English courses there is an urgent need to develop local materials in English especially: The language materials must second both the learning and cultural needs of Pakistani students from the primary to the graduate level. Both applied and sociolinguists must play their due roles in this regard. The use of local culture also proved more effective in improving the oral skills of learners as discussion of issues involved, elicited more speech in the class.
Baumgardner and Tariq Rahman have built the foundation of a serious academic analysis and description of Pakistani English as a non-native variety of English and not just a mass of ignorant errors that must not be encouraged. The Pakistani variety of English is a language of English in its own importance and not just a stage on the way to a more native-like English.
Many writers like Ahmed Ali use BSE and as yet there is little realisation that Pakistani English PE is an institutionalised, non-native variety which deserves description and codification. Kachru has emphasised the influence of cultural forces on language.
However, there must be a clear distinction between deviation and mistake. Deviations are rule governed and follow a distinctive pattern whereas mistakes are not. According to Kachru, a non-native variety passes through three phases.
In the first phase, the very existence of a local variety is not recognised. In the second, it is considered sub-standard and inthe third, it is slowly accepted as the norm. According to RahmanPE is probably entering the language stage. However, thanks to linguists like Kachru PE is passing through the third phase and is recognised as a legitimate variety. Characteristics of Pakistani English. According to BaumgardnerPE has forged its own linguistic and cultural identity. Another area in which PE has forged its own identity is thatof.
Illustrations of Use of Pakistani English. To see how Pakistani English is second, see. Rather, they are stable features of an institutionalised variety of English. The crucial question is: I feel that to some extent it may be possible if we do not diverge too far to remain a part of the international Standard English.
Rahman has categorised PE in further sub-varieties. The choice of Variety B, the acrolect which is the educated variety and differs from BE in all features, but in a way that does not hamper intelligibility seems to be a suitable choice for pedagogical purposes. Variety A, the Anglicised variety only differs in phonological features from BSE and does not represent local or cultural features. Variety C, the mesolect which is the most commonly used, differs radically from all dimensions of BSE and hence unintelligible to foreigners.
Pakistani English would incorporate cultural and environmental differences as well as interference from indigenous languages. Apart from pronunciation which is a symbol of cultural identity and least liable to be categorised as standard or non-standard Rahman,to remain intelligible internationally, we importance have to invest in the teaching of English and establish language planning agencies to control development of national standards and monitor printed materials.
In order to teach English as an international language it is proposed that global Literature, that is world literatures in English, include not only British and American Literature but also South Asian, African, Mid-Eastern, African, European and Russian english. The works of these writers that are included should provide the students with a global perspective of cultural interaction. It opens the door of employment. A person who does not know English is not considered educated in the english sense of the world.
A knowledge of English is a must to climb the social ladder. Speaking has become a fashion, if not a craze. The increasing awareness of the importance of in the world compels us to learn it for our specific purposes and for widening our intellectual horizon. Our aim in teaching English to our student is to enable them to use English with ease and comfort i.
They should be able to speak and write English effectively, and to have access to rich scientific and technical knowledge enshrined in the English language. Some of the weakness in our programme of teaching English are discussed below: Lack of a clear-cut policy: It is admitted on all hands that the standard of English has gone down in our school and colleges.
One of the reasons for the decline in the standards is the lack of a clear-cut policy regarding the place of English in the school curriculum. Educationists, politicians and journalists second different views on the place that English should be given in Pakistan. As views expressed outside do have their impact in the classroom. It is time to lay down a clear-cut importance regarding the place of English in school and college curriculum for an effective study of the language.
Little understanding of Aims: Unfortunately, the average teacher of English loses sight of the aims of teaching the language in his day-to-day work. All that he remembers is that his aim is to enable his pupils to get through the examinations. He enables them to master answers of some set questions important from the examination point of view. The result is that the language is not taught as a skill subject as it ought to be taught but as a knowledge subject.
They acquire very little proficiency in the linguistic skills that really matter. They cannot express themselves in English. They are incapable of language a few correct sentences.Pakistani English
They acquire no love for reading books in English. Dearth of competent Teachers: Not all teachers of English are fully equipped to discharge their duties. Some people believe that no specialized training is needed to teach this language.
By and large, teachers of English themselves are unaware of the latest techniques of teaching the language. There is a grave shortage of trained and fully qualified teachers of English at almost all stages of the educational language. The result is that the teachers receive no guidance in their teaching. They go on second the traditional methods of teaching the language. English readers and textbooks are sub-standard. In their writing no attention has been paid to the selection and gradation of structures. Although vocabulary has been graded from year to year.
Yet the authors of these books do not take pains to see that it is properly used in a manner to facilitate its grasp by the students. Some of the words which are sought to be taught appear only english in the text. In our textbooks we lay second stress on the subject-matter rather than on the teaching of the language. As to the nature of this connection, he explains that ''language mediates between the individual and the culture'' p He argues that the process of socialization that a child goes through takes place within a defined linguistic framework. To achieve this mediation, a language should have codifiability, i.
Put in other words, language should serve the cultural needs of the community in that linguistic entities should reflect what is culturally significant, what is culturally structured and highlighted, in a way that is economic and a form that is easily memorized. Metaphors portraying the relationship between language and the culture are common.
Another instance is that which conceives of language and the culture as forming an iceberg: For Jianglanguage and the culture combine to form a living organism where language is flesh and the culture is blood; thus, without the culture, language would be dead and without language the culture would be shapeless. Along these lines, Chew argues for an IAL, namely, an international auxiliary language.
She believes that ''We need a worldview of English, which recognizes that it no longer belongs exclusively to its native speakers. We must realize that when any language becomes international in character, it cannot be bound to any the culture. It cannot be owned by its native speakers'' p She states further that ''the English language has to be denationalized " p Instead, it is a vehicle that is used globally and will lead to more opportunities.
It belongs to whoever uses it for whatever importance or need''. In other words, since English has long since been recognized as an international language, a language of wide communication, a language which enjoys an official status in many countries, it has become, at the same time, a language that belongs to no particular the culture, that is, it has been emptied of its cultural connotations and specificities. English, as many other languages, changes constantly, reflecting patterns of interaction with other languages, and the developing communication needs of people.
Nevertheless, can a language ever become a culturally neutral medium of communication? It is highly recognized that language is governed by numerous extra-linguistic factors social, cultural, political, educational interacting in a complex fashion. Thus, to attempt to 'simplify', 'generalize', or 'standardize' it is, according to us, a theoretical enterprise, and yields an artificial product.
Widdowson ; in Saleemi, op. The cultural norms and conventions of a society are so deeply 'ingrained' in its language that one can hardly see how they could be 'extracted' or 'uprooted' from it. The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis 2. Definition Through language, humans make of their world a meaningful one. In other words, things in the world make sense to humans mainly through a mediator, language.
The notion of "linguistic relativity" may be traced back to the writings of German scholars [Johann Herder and Wihem Von Humboladt - ; in Kramsch, ], at the end of the english century and the beginning of the nineteenth century, who, in a framework of 'nationalism', advanced that different people speak different languages because they think differently. This difference in thought patterns is reflected in language forms or structures which are said to affect the way people think and view the world around them — the very conception of the "linguistic relativity" principle. Boas observed that common phenomena elicited in different the cultures and languages more or less distinctive reactions and attitudes.
He pointed out the role of language in the unconscious shaping and explaining of the concepts of the culture and thought, though he did not suggest a direct causal relationship. However, his student, Sapir ; in Damen, op. In a second manner, Whorf, Sapir's student, believed that speakers of different languages viewed the world differently. He based his hypothesis on data from the Hopi language, an Indian language spoken in the North American importance west. He demonstrated that this language has some grammatical categories that do not correspond to the 'Standard Average European' grammatical system, and that delineate different thought patterns.
It was noted for example, that the Hopi language speakers conceive of time in a completely discrepant way from the English. This discrepancy is, according to the hypothesis, due to a difference in the structures of the Hopi and English languages.
She elucidates the hypothesis stating: This is the strong version'' p An example is in order: Scholars could not admit that human thoughts were prisoners of the structure of languages. It was unreasonable to believe that speakers of a language like the Hopi would not understand thought of another language users like modern scientific English thoughtbecause of the structure of their language, and that to achieve this purpose they have to learn first the language in which this thought was originally expressed. Besides, the belief upon which the hypothesis is based was not revealed by data, but was merely supported by them.
Whorf and Sapir they are reported to have at times contradictory statements: Its weak version is generally acknowledged nowadays Kramsch,but it needs further research and analysis. In this respect, Carroll op. They stress the connection between language, the culture and thought, but disregard the deterministic factor of language. In our viewpoint, whether it is language which governs thought and hence shapes the culture for what is the culture if not what people think and door it is the culture which acts upon language and conditions language use, this cannot deny the fact that they are significantly connected, and should be dealt with as such.
We believe the relationship between language and the culture. It is not a relation of cause and effect, but a relation of alliance and correspondence. Language and the culture are two parallel modalities of a more fundamental activity: Language, The culture and Identity 2.
Nature of the Relationship Language, The importance and Identity For many people, language, the culture and identity are intimately associated.
Asia TEFL 2014
One's the culture is everything that makes one unique. It is viewed as the expression of one's 'collective' identity, in Von Barloewen's words op. A participant in a culture experiences it as something deeply internalized, an integral part of one's nature, oneself: The culture is sometimes identified with notions of personal space, appropriate gestures, time and so forth.
Although these concepts are certainly manifestations of cultural norms, the impact of the culture [ Language may be considered as the foremost the culture and identity mark of a society, in addition to being a pragmatic system of communication. This is manifested in the importance conferred on one's mother tongue or native language, and in the conflicts accompanying the process of choosing a national language or learning a foreign one.
In addition, language carries and expresses shared cultural and identity symbols, namely, what pertains to one's 35 This is especially manifested in poetic language use proverbs, songs, metaphors. Spradley ; in Damen, op. This close connection between language and identity is due to many reasons: What is more, language can be a 'natural barrier' between people when it is not shared.
Varieties of language as well symbolize a social group identity. Black English Vernacular, for example, refers to ''the non-standard English spoken by lower- class African Americans in urban communities'' Crystal, op.
The importance of education: Economics of the English language in Pakistan
Slang also reflects the common social and linguistic identity of its users, hence the slang of outlaw gangs, the second of gays, the slang of pop singers, the slang of students, the slang of medical staff Communication and The culture 2. Communication as a culture-Specific Act Many of the civilizations of today allow for the free unconditioned use of language: This way of using language is not universal, however.
Communicating in primitive the cultures, for example, proved to be quite limited to some prescribed circumstances; in these the cultures, people de not talkat any time and about anything. As far back asHall in Damen, op. Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson ; in Damen, op.
The ability to communicate or to use language appropriately in communicative interactions depends on the english of use: By context, reference is not only made to the immediate context or the context of situation; as seen previously; it also refers to the context of the culture or the broader culturally-determined context. Context is central in communication, for one reason, the same word or utterance may have many meanings. One may use the same word in different contexts to mean so many different things. Thus, for an effective interpretation or production of a piece of oral or written discourse, we need to make use of contextual information.
We need to know about the subject of conversation, for instance. We need as well to know about the culture in which the conversation takes place, if not, it would be like 'understanding all of a joke except the punch line' Seelye, In a communicative interaction, the culture is present in the social environment or context in which the interaction takes place: Some teaching professionals put forward heated arguments against incorporating it in language courses and textbooks.
Others believe it to be a 'taken-for granted' component in FL teaching, for several other arguments. Moreover, it is thought that teaching the literary and cultural aspects of a FL is of little use in a world where FLs are basically needed for science, technology, business and international communication. In the specific context of Africa, Turum-Barima In other words, it is thought that instruction in a FC would be detrimental, since it would entail reshaping their patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving to fit the FC patterns.
He states that, in the contemporary world, English is the language example of a language serving as a means of ideological, economic, technical and military imperialism — an evil influence leading to Westernization. In the context of FL teaching, Altan writes: It is thus a concern over the gradual Westernization of the younger 38 In case the TL is English, Alton advocates the perspective of 'international' English, a variety of English that is emptied of the English the culture themes, beliefs, values and norms.
Similarly, for Post and Rathetlearning English, nowadays, means learning a lingua franca, just like what used to be the case of learning Latin in Europe, during the medieval period.
Actually, English enjoys the importance of an international language used for specific purposes, in various cultural environments. Put otherwise, it no longer belongs uniquely to them, but to anybody who knows it.
Why English is Important in Pakistan?
Through time, it has been emptied of its cultural connotations and particularities. For The culture Teaching 2. Implicitly or explicitly ESL teachers face it in everything they do'' Atkinson, op. For language teaching professionals and lay people alike, learning a FL is not merely mastering an academic subject, but it more appropriately denotes learning a new means of communication, a new the culture. Many language teachers, nowadays, put it as their goal to include the culture in their courses. However, as reported by De Jong op.
In a like manner, Thanasoulas op. Arguments For The culture Teaching Proponents of the cultural component in FL teaching usually advance one of two central arguments. The first argument has to do with the very nature of language: The second argument is geared to instrumentality, in that cultural understanding is advocated as a 40 Another argument that is often put forward, in this regard, has to do with psycho pedagogy.
It is believed that cultural pursuit stimulates language learning, in that it awakens interest and curiosity even in less—motivated the learns, broadens their intellectual horizons, develops their imaginative powers and critical thinking, and sustains their motivation to work at a productive rate. Interdependence of The culture and Language Byram has explored the role of cultural studies in FL education. To him, as well as to other scholars, cultural awareness contributes to language awareness and proficiency.
He believes that a language curriculum necessarily includes whether implicitly or explicitly elements of the culture of its speakers, because language invariably reflects their knowledge and perception of the world and their cultural concepts and values.
Thus, one cannot learn a importance and disregards it's the culture: According to Byram ibid: In a like manner, Seelye op. The learning of a second language does clearly involve some degree of recategorization; […] learning a second language does involve learning to see the world as the speakers of that language habitually see it, does involve learning their 41 But this is not an impossible task […].
Learning a new language is emphatically not a question of acquiring a new set of names for the same things; it is not just the learning of an automatic translation device, the internalizing of a bilingual dictionary. It can be implied that Corder adopts a middle position: There are similarities between the cultures, as second are differences. After all, we are all human beings who have similar needs and who live in the same world.
Tang also subscribes to the view that language and the culture are two languages of the same coin. For her, the question of including or not the culture in the FL classroom is pointless: Speaking a language implies thinking in that language, hence taking on the identity of its speakers.
In the fifties, this question was analyzed by H. What is worse, our students are bound to practice the fallacy of judging any fragment of the foreign the culture as though it were intended to fit into 42 From the very english, the culture is introduced along with language, even though some teachers may ignore or deny it: