How did world war 1 cause world war 2
Mason had argued that the German working-class was always to the Nazi dictatorship; that in the over-heated German economy of the late s, German workers could force employers to grant higher wages by leaving for another firm that would grant the desired wage increases; that this was a form of political resistance and this resistance forced Adolf Hitler to go to war in After numerous notable successes and some early failures in the s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the s.
The treaty incensed Germans, but it had not managed to contain Germany's potential, and by the mids the country was surrounded by weak, divided states. Throughout the s, several events conspired to push the world back to the brink of war. The invasion was to become the model for how Germany waged war over the course of the next six years, History says, with a tactic that would become known as the "blitzkrieg" strategy.
Once the German forces had ploughed their way through, devastating a swath of territory, infantry moved in, picking off any remaining resistance. Germany's vastly superior military technology, coupled with Poland's catastrophic early strategic miscalculations, meant Hitler was able to claim a swift victory. The Nazi leader had been confident the invasion would be successful for two important reasons, says the BBC: Second, he judged the British and French prime ministers, Neville Chamberlain and Edouard Daladier, to be weak, indecisive leaders who would opt for a peace settlement rather than war.
Neville Chamberlain has been much derided by many historians for his stance on Nazi Germany, offering, as he did, numerous opportunities for Hitler to honour his commitments and curb his expansionist ambitions. Hitler also made two important alliances during In MarchGerman troops marched into Austria.
Did WWI Lead to WWII?
The Austrian leader was forced to hold a vote asking the people whether they wanted to be part of Germany. The Austrian leader asked Britain, France and Italy for aid. Hitler promised that Anschluss was the end of his expansionist aims and not wanting to risk war, the other countries did nothing. Hitler did not keep his word and six months later demanded that the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia be handed over to Germany.
Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of Britain, met with Hitler three times during September to try to reach an agreement that would prevent war. The Munich Agreement stated that Hitler could have the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia provided that he promised not to invade the rest of Czechoslovakia. Hitler was not a man of his word and in March invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. Despite calls for help from the Czechoslovak government, neither Britain nor France was prepared to take military action against Hitler. Chamberlain believed that, faced with the prospect of war against Britain and France, Hitler would stop his aggression.
World War Two – Causes
German troops invaded Poland on 1st September Appeasement means giving in to someone provided their demands are seen as reasonable. During the s, many politicians in both Britain and France came to see that the terms of the Treaty of Versailles had placed restrictions on Germany that were unfair.
When Germany began re-arming inmany politicians felt that Germany had a right to re-arm in order to protect herself. It was also argued that a stronger Germany would prevent the spread of Communism to the west. InHitler argued that because France had signed a new treaty with Russia, Germany was under threat from both countries and it was essential to German security that troops were stationed in the Rhineland. France was not strong enough to fight Germany without British help and Britain was not prepared to go to war at this point.
Furthermore, many believed that since the Rhineland was a part of Germany it was reasonable that German troops should be stationed there. They supported communist parties in many countries and helped set up similar regimes in Hungary and Bavaria, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia.
World War II: Causes of Conflict
By there was a corridor of anti-communist border states just west of Russia. However, these states feuded among themselves, and such alliances they formed, like the Little Ententewere unstable. Both Italian and German fascism were in part a reaction to international communist and socialist uprisings, in conjunction with nationalist fears of a Slavic empire. The street violence would help shift moderate opinion towards the need for Germany to find an anti-communist strongman to restore stability to German life.
Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base or economic influence of a country, usually by means of military aggression. It invaded Albania in earlyat the start of the war, and later invaded Greece. Italy had also invaded Ethiopia as early as This provoked angry words and an oil embargo from the League of Nationswhich failed. Under the Nazi regime, Germany began its own program of expansion, seeking to restore the "rightful" boundaries of historic Germany.
As a prelude toward these goals the Rhineland was remilitarized in March Also, of importance was the idea of a Greater Germanysupporters hoped to unite the German people under one nation state, which included all territories where Germans lived, regardless of whether they happened to be a minority in a particular territory.
After the Treaty of Versaillesa unification between Germany and a newly formed German-Austriaa successor rump state of Austria-Hungarywas prohibited by the Allies despite the majority of Austrian Germans supporting such a union.Did WWI Lead to WWII?
Militarism is the principle or policy of maintaining a large military establishment, with the view that military efficiency is the supreme ideal of a state. In addition to this, the leaders of militaristic countries often feel a need to prove that their armies are important and formidable, and this was often a contributing factor in the start of conflicts, including the aggressive foreign policy of War European expansionismItaly the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Japan the Second Sino-Japanese Warwhich in itself is a contributing factor to the World War.
Twentieth-century events marked the culmination of a millennium-long process of intermingling between Germans and Slavs. Over how centuries, many Germans had settled in the east examples being the Volga Germans invited to Russia by Catherine the Greatand the Ostsiedlung in medieval times. Such migratory patterns created enclaves and blurred ethnic war. The rise of nationalism in the 19th century made race a centerpiece of political loyalty. The rise of the nation-state had given way to the politics of identity, including Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism.
Furthermore, Social-Darwinist theories framed the coexistence as a "Teuton vs. Slav" struggle for domination, land and world resources. The Treaty of Versailles was neither lenient enough to appease Germanynor harsh enough to prevent it from war the dominant continental power again. The treaty provided for harsh monetary reparationsseparated millions of ethnic Germans into neighboring countries, territorial dismembermentand caused mass ethnic resettlement.
In an effort to pay war reparations to Britain and France, the Weimar War printed trillions of marks, causing extremely high inflation of the German currency see Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic. The treaty created bitter resentment towards the victors of World War I, who had promised the people of Germany that U.
Many Germans felt that the German government had agreed to an armistice based on this understanding, while others felt that the German Revolution of — had been orchestrated by the "November criminals" who later assumed office in the new Weimar Republic.
The German colonies were taken during the war, and Italy took the southern half of Tyrol after an armistice had been agreed upon. The war in the east ended with the defeat and collapse of Russian Empireand German troops occupied large parts of Eastern and Central Europe with varying degree of controlestablishing various client states such as a kingdom of Poland and the United Baltic Duchy.
After the destructive and indecisive battle of Jutland and the mutiny of its sailors inthe Kaiserliche Marine spent most of the war in cause, only to be turned over to the allies and scuttled at surrender by its own officers. The lack of an obvious military defeat was one of the pillars that held together the Dolchstosslegende "Stab-in-the-back myth" and gave the Nazis another propaganda tool at their disposal.
French security demands, world as reparations, coal payments, and a demilitarized Rhineland, took precedence at the Paris Peace Conference in and shaped the Treaty of Versailles by severely punishing Germany; however, Austria found the treaty to be unjust which encouraged Hitler's popularity.
Ginsberg argues, "France was greatly weakened and, in its weakness and fear of a resurgent Germany, sought to isolate and punish Germany French revenge would come back to haunt France during the Nazi invasion and occupation twenty years later. Did World War I ended inFrance, along with the other victor countries, were in a desperate situation regarding their economies, security, and morale. The Paris Peace Conference of was their chance to punish Germany for starting the war.
The war "must be someone's fault — and that's how very natural human reaction" analyzed historian Margaret MacMillan. The War Guilt Clause was the first step towards a satisfying revenge for the victor countries, namely France, against Germany.
France understood that its position in was "artificial and transitory". The two main provisions of the French security agenda were reparations from Germany in the form of money and coal and a detached German Rhineland. The French government printed excess currency, which created inflation, to compensate for the lack of funds in addition to borrowing money from the United States. Reparations from Germany were necessary to stabilize the French economy. Because France feared for its safety as a country, the French demanded an amount of did that was a "technical impossibility" for the Germans to pay back.
This gave France a physical security barrier between itself and Germany. Germany also fell behind in their cause payments.
They fell behind because of a passive resistance movement against the French. At this point the majority of Germans were enraged with the French and placed the blame for their humiliation on the Weimar Republic. Although this failed, Hitler gained recognition as a national hero amongst the German population. The demilitarized Rhineland and additional cutbacks on military infuriated the Germans. Although it is logical that France would want the Rhineland to be a neutral zone, the fact that France had the power to make that desire happen merely added onto the resentment of the Germans against the French.
In addition, the Treaty of Versailles dissolved the German general staff and possession of navy ships, aircraft, poison gastanks, and heavy artillery was made illegal.
Causes of World War II
Other than a few coal and iron deposits, and a small oil field on Sakhalin Island, Japan lacked strategic mineral resources. Japan's goal after was economic dominance of most of East Asia, often expressed in Pan-Asian terms of "Asia for the Asians.
Grew, in a formal address to the America-Japan Society stated:. American rights and interests in China are being impaired or destroyed by the policies and actions of the Japanese authorities in China. In Japan invaded Manchuria and China proper.
The ongoing conflict in China led to a deepening conflict with the U. Lengthy talks were held between the U. The intended consequence of this was the halt of oil shipments from the U. The Netherlands and Britain followed suit. With oil reserves that would last only a year and a half during peace time much less during wartimethis ABCD line left Japan two choices: The Japan government deemed it unacceptable to retreat from China.
The League of Nations was an international organization founded after World War I to prevent future wars. The League's methods included disarmament ; preventing war through collective security ; settling disputes between countries through negotiation diplomacy ; and improving global welfare. The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding century. ByMussolini was able to make himself the dictator of Italy and transformed the country into a police state.
Swiftly rising to power in the late s, the Nazis and their charismatic leader, Adolf Hitlerfollowed the central tenets of Fascism while also advocating for the racial purity of the German people and additional German Lebensraum living space.
Playing on the economic distress in Weimar Germany and backed by their "Brown Shirts" militia, the Nazis became a political force. On January 30,Hitler was placed in position to take power when he was appointed Reich Chancellor by President Paul von Hindenburg.
A month after Hitler assumed the Chancellorship, the Reichstag building burned.How and why did World War 2 start?
Blaming the fire on the Communist Party of Germany, Hitler used the incident as an excuse to ban those political parties that opposed Nazi policies. On March 23,the Nazis essentially took control of the government by passing the Enabling Acts. Meant to be an emergency measure, the acts gave the cabinet and Hitler the power to pass legislation without the approval of the Reichstag. Hitler next moved to consolidate his power and executed a purge of the party The Night of the Long Knives to eliminate those who could threaten his position.
With his internal foes in check, Hitler began the persecution of those who were deemed racial enemies of the state. In Septemberhe passed the Nuremburg Laws which stripped Jews of their citizenship and forbade marriage or sexual relations between a Jew and an "Aryan.
On March 16,in clear violation of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler ordered the remilitarization of Germany, including the reactivation of the Luftwaffe air force. As the German army grew through conscription, the other European powers voiced minimal protest as they were more concerned with enforcing the economic aspects of the treaty.
In a move that tacitly endorsed Hitler's violation of the treaty, Great Britain signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement inwhich allowed Germany to build a fleet one third the size of the Royal Navy and ended British naval operations in the Baltic. Two years after beginning the expansion of the military, Hitler further violated the treaty by ordering the reoccupation of the Rhineland by the German Army. Proceeding cautiously, Hitler issued orders that the German troops should withdrawal if the French intervened.
Not wanting to become involved in another major war, Britain and France avoided intervening and sought a resolution, with little success, through the League of Nations.