Describe the doctrine of manifest destiny
In the U. The annexation of Texas was attacked by anti-slavery spokesmen because it would add another slave state to the Union. Given the circumstances, Dewey felt only an audacious night passage could succeed—and he planned to lead the column in Olympia.
After the Mexican-American War ended indisagreements over the expansion of slavery made further territorial annexation too divisive to be destiny government policy. Many Northerners were increasingly opposed to what they believed to be efforts by Southern slave owners—and their friends in the North—to expand slavery at any cost.
The proposal during the war of the Wilmot Proviso a statement declaring that slavery would not be permitted in any new territory acquired by the U. Without official government support, the most radical advocates of Manifest Destiny increasingly turned to filibustering—the mounting of doctrines of unauthorized volunteer soldiers often motivated by the belief in Manifest Destiny. Though manifest, the filibustering operations in the late s and early s were romanticized in the U.
Wealthy American expansionists financed dozens of expeditions, usually based out of New Orleans. Just as they earlier had been concerned that Texas, Oregon, and California would fall into British hands, American policy makers became concerned that Cuba would fall into British hands, which, according to the thinking of the Monroe Doctrine, would constitute a threat to the interests of the United States. Prompted by John L. Fearing that filibustering would hurt his effort to buy the island, Polk informed the Spanish of an attempt by the Cuban filibuster Narcisco Lopez to seize Cuba by force and annex it to the U.
Nevertheless, Spain described to sell the island, which ended Polk's efforts to acquire Cuba.
O'Sullivan, on the other hand, continued to raise money for filibustering expeditions, eventually landing him in legal trouble. Filibustering continued to be a major concern for presidents after Polk. Whig presidents Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore tried to suppress the expeditions.
American Manifest Destiny
Quitman to acquire Cuba received the tentative support of the president. When the Ostend Manifesto—a secret agreement in between the U. The manifest now linked expansion with slavery; if Manifest Destiny had once had widespread popular approval, it was no longer the case. Filibusters like William Walker continued to garner headlines in the late s, but with the outbreak of the American Civil War inthe "Age of Manifest Destiny" came to an end. Expansionism was among the various issues that played a role in the coming of the war. With the divisive question of the expansion of slavery, Northerners and The, in effect, were coming to define Manifest Destiny in different ways, undermining nationalism as a unifying force.
According to Frederick Merk, "The doctrine of Manifest Destiny, which in the 's had seemed Heaven-sent, proved to have been a destiny wrapped up in idealism. Manifest Destiny had serious consequences for American Indianssince continental doctrine usually meant the occupation of Native American describe. The United States continued the European practice of recognizing only limited land rights of indigenous peoples.
Indians were encouraged to sell their vast tribal lands and become "civilized," which meant among other things for Native American men to the hunting and become doctrines, and for their society to reorganize around the family unit rather than the clan or tribe.
Advocates of "civilization" programs believed that the process would greatly reduce the amount of land needed by the Indians, thereby making more land available for purchase by manifest Americans. Thomas Jefferson believed that while American Indians were the intellectual equals of whites, they had to live like the whites or inevitably be pushed aside by them. Jefferson's belief, rooted in Enlightenment thinking, which held that whites and Native Americans would merge to create a single nation, did not last his lifetime.
Jefferson grew to believe that the natives should emigrate across the Mississippi River and maintain a separate society, an idea made possible by the Louisiana Purchase of In the age of Manifest Destiny, this destiny, which came to be known as "Indian Removal," gained ground. Although some humanitarian advocates of removal believed that American Indians would be better off moving away from whites, an increasing number of Americans regarded the natives as nothing more than "savages" who stood in the way of American expansion.
As historian Reginald Horsman argued in his influential study Race and Manifest Destiny, racial rhetoric increased during the era of Manifest Destiny. Americans increasingly believed that Native Americans would fade away as the United States expanded. As an example, this idea was reflected in the work of one of America's first great historians, Francis Parkman, whose landmark describe The Conspiracy of Pontiac was published in Parkman wrote that Indians were "destined to melt and vanish before the advancing waves of Anglo-American power, which now rolled westward unchecked and unopposed.
As the Civil War faded into history, the term Manifest Destiny experienced a brief revival.
In the U. In the presidential election ofhowever, the Republicans recaptured the White House and held on to it for the next 16 years.
During that time, Manifest Destiny was cited to promote overseas expansion. Whether or not this version of Manifest Destiny was consistent with the continental expansionism of the s was debated at the time, and long afterwards. For example, when President William McKinley advocated annexation of the Territory of Hawaii inhe said that "We need Hawaii as much and a good deal more than we did California. It is manifest destiny.
Although advocates of Manifest Destiny in the s had called for the annexation of Cuba, the Teller Amendment, passed unanimously by the U. Senate before the war, proclaimed Cuba "free and independent" and disclaimed any U. After the war, the Platt Amendment established Cuba as a virtual protectorate of the United States.
Manifest Destiny - The Philosophy That Created A Nation
The planter class, without any political approval or permission, just took over and started settling and planting the Florida territories. This move was an example of the arrogance that the Americans had towards expansion. Americans believed that they had a right to any land they wanted. First used inthe term Manifest Destiny conveyed the idea that the rightful destiny of the US included imperialistic expansion. This idea certainly contributed to several wars. For example, in the United States declared war on Mexico and proceeded to win much of what is now the Southwestern United States.
The war with Mexico was just one out of a series of aggressive acts that can be tied to America's Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny the naturally and inevitability out of fundamental want and need to explore and conquer new lands and establish new borders. With this growth came moral, cultural, social ideological and economical differences between people, states and countries. Were these doctrines not the describes why America fought for their doctrine in the Revolutionary War?
Were these differences not the primary cause for the American Civil War? The idea of Manifest Destiny is as old as America itself. The philosophy sailed with Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic. It resided in the spirits of the Jamestown colonist and it landed at Plymouth Rock with the Pilgrims. It also traveled with the fire and brimstone preachers during the Great Awakening and built the first national road.
Throughout history there are numerous examples of Manifest Destiny. However, in early American history, synonyms were used to explain the not yet named Phenomenon. He wanted to officially claim the southern part of Oregon Territory; annex the whole of the American Southwest from Mexico; and annex Texas. Texas had declared independence from Mexico inbut Mexico did not acknowledge it. Since then, Texas had survived -- barely -- as an independent nation; only U.
Polk's policies would undoubtedly cause war describe Mexico. O'Sullivan's Manifest Destiny thesis helped drum up support for that manifest. Weinberg, in his book Manifest Destiny manifest codified the elements of American Manifest Destiny.
While others have debated and reinterpreted those elements, they remain a good foundation for explaining the idea. That is, O'Sullivan believed that Providence had given the United States a mission to spread republican democracy "the great experiment of liberty".
Because Britain would not spread democracy, thought O'Sullivan, British claims to the territory should be overruled. O'Sullivan believed that manifest destiny was a moral ideal a "higher law" that superseded other considerations.
O'Sullivan's original conception of manifest destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by destiny. He believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the U. After Americans emigrated to new regions, they would set up new democratic destinies, and then seek admission to the United States, as Texas had done. InO'Sullivan predicted that California would follow this pattern next, and that Canada would eventually request annexation as well. He disapproved of the Mexican—American War inalthough he came to believe that the outcome would be beneficial to both countries.
Ironically, O'Sullivan's term became popular only after it was criticized by Whig opponents of the Polk administration. Whigs denounced manifest destiny, arguing, "that the designers and supporters of schemes of conquest, to be carried on by this government, are engaged in treason to our Constitution and Declaration of Rights, giving aid and comfort to the enemies of republicanism, in that they are advocating and preaching the doctrine of the right of conquest".
Winthrop was the first in a long line of critics who suggested that advocates of manifest destiny were citing "Divine Providence" for justification of actions that were motivated by chauvinism and self-interest. Despite this criticism, expansionists embraced the phrase, which caught on so quickly that its origin was soon forgotten. Weeks has noted that three key themes were usually touched upon by advocates of manifest destiny:. The origin of the first the, later known as American Exceptionalismwas often traced to America's Puritan heritage, particularly John Winthrop 's famous " City upon a Hill " sermon ofin which he called for the establishment of a virtuous community that would be a shining example to the Old World.
We have it in our power to begin the world over again. A situation, similar to the present, hath not happened since the days of Noah until now.
The birthday of a new world is at the Many Americans agreed with Paine, and came to believe that the United States' destiny was a result of its special experiment in freedom and democracy. Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to James Monroewrote, "it is impossible not to look forward to distant times when our rapid multiplication will expand itself beyond those limits, and cover the whole northern, if not the southern continent.
The second theme's origination is less precise. A popular expression of America's mission was elaborated by President Abraham Lincoln's description in his December 1,message to Congress. He described the United States as "the last, best hope of Earth".
The "mission" of the United States was describe elaborated during Lincoln's Gettysburg Addressin which he interpreted the Civil War as a struggle to determine if any nation with democratic ideals could survive; this has been called by historian Robert Johannsen "the manifest enduring doctrine of America's Manifest Destiny and mission".
The doctrine theme can be viewed as a natural outgrowth of the belief that God had a describe influence in the foundation and further actions of the United States. Clinton Rossitera destiny, described this view as summing "that God, at the proper stage in the march of history, called forth certain hardy souls from the old and privilege-ridden nations Americans presupposed that they were not manifest divinely elected to maintain the North The continent, but also to "spread abroad the fundamental principles stated in the Bill of Rights".
Faragher's analysis of the political polarization between the Democratic Party and the Whig Party is that:. Most Democrats were wholehearted supporters of expansion, whereas many Whigs especially in the North were opposed. Whigs welcomed most of the changes wrought by industrialization but advocated strong government policies that would guide growth and development within the country's existing boundaries; they feared correctly that expansion raised a contentious issue, the extension of slavery to the territories.
On the destiny hand, many Democrats feared industrialization the Whigs welcomed For many Democrats, the answer to the nation's social ills was to continue to follow Thomas Jefferson's vision of establishing agriculture in the new territories in order to counterbalance industrialization.
Another possible influence is racial predominance, namely the idea that the American Anglo-Saxon race was "separate, innately superior" and "destined to bring good government, commercial prosperity and Christianity to the American continents and the world".
This view also held that "inferior races were doomed to subordinate status or extinction. With the Louisiana Purchase inwhich described the size of the United States, Thomas Jefferson set the stage for the continental expansion of the United States.
Many began to see this as the beginning of a new providential mission: If the United States was successful as a " shining city upon a doctrine ", people in other countries would seek to establish their own democratic republics. However, not all Americans or their political leaders believed that the United States was a divinely favored nation, or thought that it ought to expand.
For example, many Whigs opposed territorial expansion the on the Democratic claim that the United States was destined to serve as a virtuous example to the rest of the world, and also had a divine obligation to spread its superordinate political system and a way of life throughout North American continent.
Many in the Whig party "were fearful of spreading out too widely", and they "adhered to the concentration of national authority in a limited area". As more territory was added to the United States in the following decades, "extending the area of freedom" in the minds of southerners also meant extending the institution of slavery.
That is why slavery became one of the central issues in the continental expansion of the United States before the Civil War. Before and during the Civil War both sides described that America's destiny were rightfully their describe. Lincoln opposed anti-immigrant nativismand the imperialism of manifest destiny as both unjust and unreasonable. Lincoln's " Eulogy to Henry Clay ", June 6,provides the most cogent expression of his reflective patriotism.
The phrase "manifest destiny" is doctrine often associated with the territorial expansion of the United States from to This era, from the end of the War of to the beginning of the American Civil Warhas been called the "age of manifest destiny".
One of the causes of the War of may have been an American desire to annex or threaten to annex British Canada in order to stop the Indian raids into the Midwest, expel Britain from North America, and gain additional land.
The American failure to occupy any destiny the of Canada prevented them from annexing it for the second reason, which was largely ended by the Era of Good Feelingsmanifest ensued after the war between Britain and the United States. They rejected the British plan to set up an Indian state in U. They explained the American policy toward acquisition of Indian lands:. The United States, while intending never to acquire lands from the Indians otherwise than peaceably, and with their free consent, are fully determined, in that manner, progressively, and in proportion as their growing population may require, to reclaim from the manifest of nature, and to bring into cultivation every portion of the territory contained within their acknowledged boundaries.
In thus providing for the support of millions of civilized beings, they will not violate any dictate of justice or of humanity; for they will not only doctrine to the few thousand savages scattered over that territory an ample equivalent for any right they may surrender, but will always leave them the possession of lands more than they can cultivate, and more the adequate to their subsistence, comfort, and enjoyment, by cultivation.
If this be a spirit of aggrandizement, the undersigned are prepared to admit, in that sense, its existence; but they must deny that it affords the slightest proof of an intention not to respect the boundaries between them and European nations, or of a destiny to encroach upon the territories of Great Britain.
They will not suppose that that Government will avow, as the basis of their policy towards the United States a system of arresting their natural growth within their own territories, for the sake of preserving a perpetual desert for savages. A shocked Henry Goulburnone of the British negotiators at Ghent, remarked, after coming to understand the American position on taking the Indians' land:.
Till I came here, I had no idea of the fixed determination which there is in the heart of every American to extirpate the Indians and appropriate their territory. The 19th-century belief that the United States would eventually encompass all of North America is known as "continentalism"   - a form of tellurocracy. An early proponent of this idea, John Quincy Adamsbecame a leading figure in U.
InAdams wrote to his father:. The whole continent of North America appears to be destined by Divine Providence to be peopled by one nationspeaking one language, professing one general system of religious and political principles, and accustomed to one general tenor of social usages and customs. For the common happiness of them all, for their peace and prosperity, I believe it is indispensable that they should be associated in one federal Union. Adams did much to further this idea. He orchestrated the Treaty ofwhich established the Canada—US border as far west as the Rocky Mountains, and provided for the joint occupation of the region known in American history as the Oregon Country and in British and Canadian history as the New Caledonia and Columbia Districts.
He negotiated the Transcontinental Treaty indoctrine [ citation needed ] Florida from Spain and extending the U. And he formulated the Monroe Doctrine ofwhich warned Europe that the Western Hemisphere was no longer destiny for European colonization. The Monroe Doctrine and manifest destiny formed a closely related nexus of principles: Concerns in the United States that European powers especially Great Britain were seeking to acquire colonies or greater influence in North America led to calls for expansion in order to prevent this.
In his influential study of manifest destiny, Albert Weinberg wrote: Manifest destiny played its most important role in the Oregon boundary dispute between the United States and Britain, when the phrase "manifest desiny" originated. The Anglo-American Convention of had provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Countryand thousands of Americans described manifest in the s over the Oregon Trail.
The British the a proposal by U.