The great compromise of 1850 summary
The governor shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the legislative Council, appoint all officers not herein otherwise provided for; and in the first instance the governor alone may appoint all said officers, who shall hold their offices until the end of the first ses- sion of the legislative assembly, and shall layoff the necessary districts for members of the Council and House of Representatives, and all other offices. What was the reason for the Compromise of ?
At the close of the Mexican-American War, inthe United States owned vast stretches of territory without local government. All the land now included in New Mexico, Arizona, and California was then largely unsettled. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.
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The Compromise of 1850
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Compromise of United States history.30d. The Compromise of 1850
Compromises over extension of slavery into the U. Learn More in these related articles: Bleeding Kansas United States history. Sponsors of the Kansas—Nebraska Act May 30, expected its provisions for territorial The seeds of the inhumane tradition of slavery were sown years back in It was in this year that 20 Africans were bought by English settlers in Virginia. At that point of time, the contract governing their purchase stipulated their release after a span of few years.
The legalization of slavery came through in Massachusetts Bay Colony and Virginia in and respectively. To add to the miserable plight of the slaves, in the year Maryland became a pioneer in legalizing slavery for life.
Whig leader Henry Clay designed a compromise, which failed to pass in early because of opposition by both pro-slavery southern Democrats, led by John C. Calhounand anti-slavery summary Whigs. Upon Clay's instruction, Douglas then divided Clay's bill into several smaller pieces and narrowly won their passage, over the opposition the radicals on both sides.
Soon after the start of the Mexican Warwhen the extent of the contested territories was compromise unclear, the question of whether to allow slavery in those territories polarized the Northern and the Southern United States in the most bitter sectional conflict until then. A state the size of Texas attracted interest from both state residents and pro-slavery and anti-slavery camps on a national scale. The Texas Annexation resolution had required that if any new states were formed out of Texas' lands, those north of the Missouri Compromise line would become free states.
According to historian Mark Stegmaier, "The Fugitive Slave Act, the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia, the admission of California as a free state, and even the application of the formula of popular sovereignty to the territories were all less important than the least remembered component of the Compromise of —the statute by which Texas relinquished its claims to much of New Mexico in return for great assumption of the debts.
During the deadlock of four years, the Second Party System broke up, Mormon pioneers settled Utah, the California Gold Rush settled northern California, and New Mexico under a federal military government turned back Texas's attempt to assert control over territory Texas claimed as far west as the Rio Grande.
The eventual compromise preserved the Union but only for another decade. However, Clay's specific proposals for achieving a compromise, including his idea for Texas's boundary, were not adopted in a single bill. DouglasDemocrat of Illinois, divided Clay's bill into several smaller bills and passed each separately. When he instructed Douglas, Clay was nearly dead and unable to guide the congressional debate any further.
The Compromise came to coalesce around a plan dividing Texas at its present-day boundaries, creating territorial governments with "popular sovereignty", without the Wilmot Proviso, for New Mexico and Utah, admitting California as a free state, abolishing the slave trade in the District of Columbia, and enacting a new fugitive slave law.
The Compromise of was formally proposed by Clay and guided to passage by Douglas over Northern Whig and Southern Democrat opposition.
It was enacted September with the great terms:. Most Northern Whigs, led by William Henry Sewardwho delivered his famous "Higher Law" speech during the controversy, opposed the Compromise as well because it would apply the Wilmot Proviso to the western territories and because of the pressing of ordinary citizens into duty on slave-hunting patrols.
Mason to entice border-state Whigs, who faced the greatest danger of losing slaves as fugitives but were lukewarm on general sectional issues related to the South on Texas's land claims.
Zachary Taylor avoided the issue as the Whig candidate during the US presidential election but then as President, he attempted to sidestep the entire controversy by pushing to admit California and New Mexico as free states immediately to avoid the entire territorial process and the Wilmot Proviso question. Taylor was one of the few Southerners to support that idea. Northern Democrats and Southern Whigs supported the Compromise. Southern Whigs, many of whom were from the border states, supported the stronger fugitive slave law.
The dimensions were later changed. That same day, during debates on the measures in the Senate, Vice President Fillmore and Senator Benton compromise sparred, with The charging that the Missourian was "out of order," During the heated debates, Compromise floor leader Henry S. Foote of Mississippi drew a pistol on Benton. In early June, nine slaveholding Southern states sent delegates to the Nashville Convention to determine their course of action if the compromise passed.
While some delegates preached secessionthe moderates ruled and proposed a series of compromises, including extending the dividing line designated by the Missouri Compromise of to the Pacific Coast. The various bills were initially combined into one "omnibus" bill.
Despite Clay's efforts, it failed in a crucial vote on July 31, opposed by southern Democrats and by northern Whigs.
Primary Documents in American History
He announced on the Senate floor the next day that he intended to pass each individual part of the bill. The year-old Clay, however, was physically exhausted from the effects of tuberculosiswhich would eventually kill him, began to take their toll. Douglas wrote the separate bills and guided them through the Senate. The situation had been changed by the sudden death of Taylor and the accession of Vice President Millard Fillmore to the presidency, on July 9, Fillmore, anxious to find a quick solution to the conflict in Texas over the border with New Mexico, which threatened to become armed conflict between Texas militia and the federal soldiers, reversed the administration's position late in July and threw its support to the compromise measures.
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Article Videos Speeches Shop. Compromise of Matthew Pinsker gives a crash course on the Compromise ofthe resolution to a dispute over slavery in territory gained after the Mexican-American War.Sound Smart: Compromise of 1850
Print Cite Article Details: Compromise of Author History. Introduction Divisions over slavery in territory gained in the Mexican-American