What is the role of culture in socialising individuals into society
In this context it can be said that there are various types of socilisation. In contrast, the people of Taira used parental praise and the threat of withholding praise.
Socialization is important in the process of personality formation. While much of human personality is the result of our genes, the socialization process can mold it in particular directions by encouraging specific beliefs and attitudes as well as selectively providing experiences. This very likely accounts for much of the difference between the common personality types in one society in comparison to another. For instance, the Semai tribesmen of the central Malay Peninsula of Malaysia typically are gentle people who do not like violent, aggressive individuals.
In fact, they avoid them whenever possible. In fact, he seeks them out. Likewise, Shiite Muslim men of Iran are expected at times to publicly express their religious faith through the emotionally powerful act of self-inflicted pain.
If all children receive the same socialization, it is likely that they will share the same beliefs and expectations. This fact has been a strong motivation for national governments around the world to standardize education and make it compulsory for all children. Deciding what things will be taught and how they are taught is a powerful political tool for controlling people. Those who internalize the norms of society are less likely to break the law or to want radical social changes.
In all societies, however, there are individuals who do not conform to culturally defined standards of normalcy because they were "abnormally" socialized, which is to say that they have not internalized the norms of society. These people are usually labeled by their society as deviant or even mentally ill. Large-scale societiessuch as the United States, are usually composed of many ethnic groups. As a consequence, early socialization in different families often varies in techniques, goals, and expectations.
Since these complex societies are not culturally homogenous, they do not have unanimous agreement about what should be the shared norms. Not surprisingly, this national ambiguity usually results in more tolerance of social deviancy--it is more acceptable to be different in appearance, personality, and actions in such large-scale societies. How are Children Socialized? Socialization is a learning process that begins shortly after birth.
Early childhood is the period of the most intense and the most crucial socialization. At the beginning of this stage, children might be upset if someone stepped on a sand castle that represents their own home. By the end of the stage, children understand the difference between symbols and the object they represent.
From about age 7 to age 11, children learn to mentally perform certain tasks that they formerly did by hand. For example, if children in this stage are shown a row of six sticks and are asked to get the same number from the nearby stack, they can choose six sticks without having to match each stick in the row to one in the pile.
Adolescents in this stage can consider abstract mathematical, logical and moral problems and reason about the future. Subsequent mental development builds on and elaborates the abilities and skills gained during this stage. According to Freud, biological drives especially sexual ones are opposed to cultural norms, and socialization is the process of taming these drives. The id is the source of pleasure-seeking energy. When energy is discharged, tension is reduced and feelings of pleasure are produced, the id motivates us to have sex, eat and excrete, among other bodily functions.
The ego is the overseer of the personality, a sort of traffic light between the personality and the outside world. The ego is guided mainly by the reality principle. When the id registers, for example, the ego will block attempts to eat spare types or poisonous berries, postponing gratification until food is available.
The superego is an idealized parent: It performs a moral, judgemental function. Children must obey the reality principle, waiting for the right time and place to give into the id. They must also obey the moral demands of parents and of their own developing super egos. The ego is held accountable for actions, and it is rewarded or punished by the superego with feelings of pride or guilt. According to Freud, personality is formed in four stages.
Each of the stages is linked to a specific area of the body an erogenous zone. During each stage, the desire for gratification comes into conflict with the limits set by the parents and latter by the superego.
The first erogenous zone is the mouth. This is termed the oral phase. In the second stage, the oral phase, the anus becomes the primary erogenous zone. The third stage is known as the phallic phase. At this point, Freud believed, boys and girls begin to develop in different directions. After a period of latency, in which neither boys nor girls pay attention to sexual matters, adolescents enter the genital phase.
In this stage some aspects of earlier stages are retained, but the primary source of pleasure is genital intercourse with a member of the opposite sex. Socialisation is a process by which culture is transmitted to the younger generation and men learn the rules and practices of social groups to which they belong.
Through it that a society maintains its social system. Personalities do not come ready-made. The process that transforms a child into a reasonably respectable human being is a long process.
Hence, every society builds an institutional framework within which socialisation of the child takes place. Culture is transmitted through the communication they have with one another and communication thus comes to be the essence of the process of culture transmission. In a society there exists a number of agencies to socialise the child. To facilitate socialisation different agencies play important roles.
These agencies are however interrelated. The family plays an outstanding role in the socialisation process. In all societies other agencies besides the family contribute to socialisation such as educational institutions, the peer group etc. But family plays the most important role in the formation of personality. By the time other agencies contribute to this process family has already left an imprint on the personality of the child.
The parents use both reward and punishment to imbibe what is socially required from a child. The family has informal control over its members. Family being a mini society acts as a transmission belt between the individual and society. It trains the younger generation in such a way that it can take the adult roles in proper manner. As family is primary and intimate group, it uses informal methods of social control to check the undesirable behaviour on the part of its members.
The process of socialisation remains a process because of the interplay between individual life cycle and family life cycle. Peer Group means a group in which the members share some common characteristics such as age or sex etc.
It is made up of the contemporaries of the child, his associates in school, in playground and in street. The growing child learns some very important lessons from his peer group. Since members of the peer group are at the same stage of socialisation, they freely and spontaneously interact with each other. The members of peer groups have other sources of information about the culture and thus the acquisition of culture goes on.
They view the world through the same eyes and share the same subjective attitudes. In order to be accepted by his peer group, the child must exhibit the characteristic attitudes, the likes and dislikes.
He may consequently attempt to withdraw from the family environment. The peer group surpasses the parental influence as time goes on. This seems to be an inevitable occurrence in rapidly changing societies. Religion play a very important role in socialisation. Religion instills the fear of hell in the individual so that he should refrain from bad and undesirable activities. Religion not only makes people religious but socialises them into the secular order. Parents and peer groups are not the only agencies of the socialisation in modern societies.
Every civilised society therefore has developed a set of formalised agencies of education schools, colleges and universities which have a great bearing on the socialisation process.
It is in the educational institutions that the culture is formally transmitted and acquired in which the science and the art of one generation is passed on to the next. The educational institutions not only help the growing child in learning language and other subjects but also instill the concept of time, discipline, team work, cooperation and competition.
In addition to representing the child's entire social world, the family also determines the child's initial social status and identity in terms of race, religion, social class, and gender. While the family offers the child intimate social relationships, the school offers more objective social relationships. School is a social institution, and as such, has direct responsibility for instilling in, or teaching, the individual the information, skills, and values that society considers important for social life.
In school, children learn the skills of interpersonal interaction. They learn to share, to take turns, and to compromise with their peers.
The peer group exerts a most powerful social influence on the child. The peer group is composed of status equals ; that is, all children within a given peer group are the same age and come from the same social status.
Interaction with a peer group loosens the child's bonds to the family; it provides both an alternative model for behavior and new social norms and values. To become fully socialized, children must learn how to deal with the conflicting views and values of all of the people who are important in their lives.
These people are called " significant others. The mass media includes television, newspapers, magazines; in fact, all means of communication which are directed toward a vast audience in society. The mass media, especially television, have considerable influence on the process of socialization.
Children spend a great deal of their time watching television, and the violent content of many television programs is believed to be a contributing factor in aggressive behavior. Socialization helps to shape and define our thoughts, feelings, and actions, and it provides us with a model for our behavior.
As children become socialized, they learn how to fit into and to function as productive members of human society. Socialization teaches us the cultural values and norms that provide the guidelines for our everyday life. Culture may be defined as the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects shared by a particular group of people. Culture is a way of life that a number of people have in common.
Our culture is reflected in what we wear to work, when and what we eat, and how we spend our leisure time. Culture provides the framework within which our lives become meaningful, based on standards of success, beauty, and goodness.
This acquired knowledge about new employees' future work environment affects the way they are able to apply their skills and abilities to their jobs. How actively engaged the employees are in pursuing knowledge affects their socialization process.
Socialisation: The Meaning, Features, Types, Stages and Importance
In fact, our sense of individual identity, that is, our sense of who and what we are,
Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices. Group socialization is the theory that an individual's peer groups, rather than parental figures, are the primary influence of personality and behavior in adulthood. Therefore, peer groups have stronger correlations with personality development than parental figures do. Behavioral genetics suggest that up to fifty percent of the variance in adult personality is due to genetic differences.
Harris claims that while it's true that siblings don't have identical experiences in the home environment making it difficult to associate a definite figure to the variance of personality due to home environmentsthe variance found by current methods is so low that researchers should look elsewhere to try to account for the remaining variance.
Also, because of already existing genetic similarities with parents, developing personalities outside of childhood home environments would further diversify individuals, increasing their evolutionary success. Entering high school is a crucial moment in many adolescent's lifespan involving the branching off from the restraints of their parents. When dealing with new life challenges, adolescents take comfort in discussing these issues within their peer groups instead of their parents.
Today's high-schoolers operate in groups that play the role of nag and nanny-in ways that are both beneficial and isolating. Individuals and groups change their evaluations and commitments to each other over time.
There is a predictable sequence of stages that occur in order for an individual to transition through a group; investigation, socialization, maintenance, resocialization, and remembrance. During each stage, the individual and the group evaluate each other which leads to an increase or decrease in commitment to socialization.
This socialization pushes the individual from prospective, new, full, marginal, and ex member. Investigation This stage is marked by a cautious search for information.
The Importance of Socialization in Society
The individual compares groups in order to determine which one will fulfill their needs reconnaissancewhile the group estimates the value of the potential member recruitment.
The end of this stage is marked by entry to the group, whereby the group asks the individual to join and they accept the offer. Socialization Now that the individual has moved from prospective member to new member, they must accept the group's culture. At this stage, the individual accepts the group's norms, values, and perspectives assimilationand the group adapts to fit the new member's needs accommodation. The acceptance transition point is then reached and the individual becomes a full member.
However, this transition can be delayed if the individual or the group reacts negatively. For example, the individual may react cautiously or misinterpret other members' reactions if they believe that they will be treated differently as a new comer. Maintenance During this stage, the individual and the group negotiate what contribution is expected of members role negotiation.
While many members remain in this stage until the end of their membership, some individuals are not satisfied with their role in the group or fail to meet the group's expectations divergence. Resocialization If the divergence point is reached, the former full member takes on the role of a marginal member and must be resocialized.
There are two possible outcomes of resocialization: Remembrance In this stage, former members reminisce about their memories of the group, and make sense of their recent departure. If the group reaches a consensus on their reasons for departure, conclusions about the overall experience of the group become part of the group's tradition. Boys learn to be boys and girls learn to be girls. This "learning" happens by way of many different agents of socialization.
The behaviour that is seen to be appropriate for each gender is largely determined by societal, cultural and economic values in a given society. Gender socialization can therefore vary considerably among societies with different values. The family is certainly important in reinforcing gender rolesbut so are groups including friends, peers, school, work and the mass media. Gender roles are reinforced through "countless subtle and not so subtle ways" In peer group activities, stereotypic gender roles may also be rejected, renegotiated or artfully exploited for a variety of purposes.
Carol Gilligan compared the moral development of girls and boys in her theory of gender and moral development. She claimedthat boys have a justice perspective meaning that they rely on formal rules to define right and wrong. Girls, on the other hand, have a care and responsibility perspective where personal relationships are considered when judging a situation. Gilligan also studied the effect of gender on self-esteem. She claimed that society's socialization of females is the reason why girls' self-esteem diminishes as they grow older.
Girls struggle to regain their personal strength when moving through adolescence as they have fewer female teachers and most authority figures are men. As parents are present in a child's life from the beginning, their influence in a child's early socialization is very important, especially in regards to gender roles. Sociologists have identified four ways in which parents socialize gender roles in their children: Shaping gender related attributes through toys and activities, differing their interaction with children based on the sex of the child, serving as primary gender models, and communicating gender ideals and expectations.
Sociologist of gender R. Connell contends that socialization theory is "inadequate" for explaining gender, because it presumes a largely consensual process except for a few "deviants," when really most children revolt against pressures to be conventionally gendered; because it cannot explain contradictory "scripts" that come from different socialization agents in the same society, and because it does not account for conflict between the different levels of an individual's gender and general identity.
Racial socialization has been defined as "the developmental processes by which children acquire the behaviors, perceptions, values, and attitudes of an ethnic group, and come to see themselves and others as members of the group".
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